Skin Care Glossary

Almond Oil
Almond oil is oil that is squeezed from dried almonds by a technique called cold pressing. It is rich in vitamins E, A and D, making it an ideal additive to skincare products. Almond oil is an excellent moisturizer so it works well in body lotions and scrubs. It also helps reduce wrinkles and inflammation, making it a perfect addition to facial skincare products.
Alpha Lipoic Acid
Alpha Lipoic Acid is a natural antioxidant that is found in many foods we eat, such as spinach, broccoli, potatoes, yeast and liver. Recently, the skincare benefits of Alpha Lipoic Acid have been explored, with clinical studies showing its effectiveness against fighting fine lines and wrinkles, and that it is less irritating than other wrinkle fighters (such as Retin A, Renova and hydroxy acids). Because of this, Alpha Lipoic Acid is increasingly being used in anti-aging facial products.
Argan Oil
Argan Oil is oil that is squeezed from nuts of the argan tree, a tree which is unique to Morocco. It has a number of culinary uses, but Moroccans have also traditionally used argan oil to treat skin conditions such as infections, bug bites and rashes. The healing power of argan oil comes from its rich vitamins, particular Vitamin E. It is also loaded with antioxidants and fatty acids, making it perfect for moisturizing and toning the skin.
Baking Soda
Baking soda is the common name for the chemical compound sodium bicarbonate. While commonly used in the kitchen, it also has a range of beauty uses for both hair and skin. Although baking soda may appear to be a fine powder, it is in fact a crystalline salt. Because of this it works well as a gentle exfoliant that helps remove dead skin cells from facial skin in order to reveal new, healthy skin underneath.
Beeswax is a natural wax that is produced by honeybees as they build and repair the honeycombs of the hive. After honey is harvested, beekeepers melt and purify the wax, which is then used in a range of skincare products. For some skincare products (like message oil), beeswax is used as a natural thickener. It also has antibacterial properties and can protect the skin while still allowing the skin to breath, making it ideal for other skin and lip products as well.
Beta Carotene
Beta Carotene is the red-orange pigment that you see in many plants and fruits, such as carrots, pumpkins and sweet potatoes. Like all carotenoids, beta carotene is a natural antioxidant which can protect the skin from free radicals. When used in skincare products, it helps in defending cells against damage that causes the signs of skin aging, such as wrinkles and fine lines.
Bladderwrack (Fucus Vesciculosus)
Bladderwrack (scientific name Fucus vesciculosus) is a type of seaweed that is often used to make medicine for a range of disorders, from arthritis and joint pain to digestive problems. Bladderwrack is used on the skin to treat conditions such as burns, insect bites, aging skin, and other skin diseases. Although it is a relatively new skincare component in North America, cultures in Asia and Northern Europe have been using it for centuries. Bladderwrack is chosen for natural skincare products because it is loaded with minerals that cleanse out toxins and nourish the skin.
Camelina Oil
Camelina oil is oil extracted from the seeds of the Camelina sativa – a small shrub with pale yellow flowers. It is similar to flax and is sometimes known as wild flax or false flax. Like flax oil, camelina oil is high in omega fatty acids as well as Vitamin E. This makes it an excellent skincare ingredient that can nourish, moisturize, improve elasticity and repair damaged skin.
Castor Seed Oil
Castor seed oil (or just castor oil) is a vegetable oil that is extracted from the seeds of the castor oil plant, Ricinus communis. Castor seed oil has antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties that make it ideal for treating skin conditions such as acne, dry skin, sunburn, and to help prevent infection. The high concentration of fatty acids also makes it a great moisturizer.
Cera Bellina
Cera Bellina is derived from beeswax, where the free fatty acids of the beeswax are converted to polyglycerol esters. It is added to skincare products (for example, lip care, balms and body butter) as a thickener that adds a smooth and silky feel. Like beeswax itself, it is natural, safe and suitable for sensitive skin.
Cholesterol/Lanosterol Esters
Cholesterol/Lanosterol Esters refers to a combination of cholesterol with fatty acid ester (natural fats and oils) that are derived from lanolin. It is used as a skin conditioning agent in beauty products, particularly for the sensitive skin of the lips. Cholesterol/Lanosterol Esthers have emollient properties that can soften, smooth, soothe and relax the skin.
Coconut Oil
Coconut oil is oil derived from the meat of mature coconuts. It has a range of uses from cooking to hair, skin and beauty products. Coconut oil is rich in fatty acids as well as Vitamin E and proteins. This combination makes it ideal for use as a skin moisturizer. It can also help certain skin conditions like psoriasis, acne and eczema.
Coral Powder
Coral powder comes from coral calcium, which is harvested from fossilized coral reefs. Coral calcium is a salt that contains calcium carbonate, magnesium, and dozens of other minerals. When ground into a powder it makes an excellent exfolliant in facial and body scrubs, with the ability to remove dead skin cells, draw out impurities and replenish the skin of necessary minerals.
CoQ10 (Coenzyme Q10)
CoQ10 is the abbreviation for coenzyme Q10, a natural enzyme that is found in every cell in your body. Its roles include neutralizing free radicals and keeping skin cells healthy, young and vibrant. As we age, the amount of CoQ10 that our bodies produce decreases, causing the body to lose collagen and elastin (which leads to wrinkles, fine lines, and sagging skin). CoQ10 is therefore an important ingredient in anti-aging skincare to replace the lost CoQ10, where these antioxidants can penetrate the skin and stimulate the production of collagen and elastin.
Dead Sea Salt
Dead Sea salt is salt that comes from the Dead Sea, a body of water in the Middle East that is known for its high salt content (29% compared to 4% salt that is found in the oceans). The salt from the Dead Sea is packed with minerals such as Magnesium, Bromide, Iodine, Calcium and Potassium. These minerals have a range of skincare benefits including the ability to detoxify, soothe, relax, and moisturize.
DisPore 20
DisPore 20 includes Lecithin, Lysophosphatidic Acid and Lysolecithin – a combination of ingredients that have been clinically shown to reduce the number and size of pores. Together these ingredients can improve keratinization (the production of keratin, which is the structural material for your outer skin layer), thus strengthening and stabilizing your skin proteins.
Dunaliella Salina
Dunaliella Salina is a single cell marine algae that has adapted to survive in areas of intense sun exposure, high salinity and extreme temperatures with protection from carotenoids Phytoene and Phytofluene. These carotenoids provide antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and light absorption properties to skincare products that help fight the signs of aging. In clinical studies, these carotenoids have been shown to help reduce wrinkles, improve skin elasticity and firmness, and even skin coloration.
Ferulic Acid
Ferulic Acid is an organic compound that is found in the cell walls of plants. It is one of the most powerful natural antioxidants, combating the damage of free radicals that lead to aging skin. Not only does ferulic acid have its own antioxidant properties, it also stabilizes other skincare ingredients (such as Vitamins C and E) and doubles their power of neutralizing free radicals.
Grapefruit Essential Oil (Pink Grapefruit Oil)
Grapefruit oil is taken from the peel of the grapefruit by a process known as cold pressing. It is high in Vitamin C and has antioxidant properties that help protect against cell damage. Grapefruit oil is also used as an antiseptic and disinfectant. This makes it ideal for facial washes as well as the treatment of acne and oily skin.
Grapeseed Oil
Grapeseed oil is oil that is squeezed out of the seeds of grapes. It can help regulate your natural oil production, which makes it ideal for fighting acne and oily skin. Other benefits include the ability to moisturize and minimize the effects of aging by tightening, reducing the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles, and protecting against free radicals.
Jojoba Oil
Jojoba oil is taken from the seeds of the jojoba plant, a shrub that can grow up to 15 feet tall. Jojoba mimics the natural oils that your body already produces, which makes it a natural moisturizer. It also has antimicrobial and antibacterial properties that make it excellent for cleansing pores, fighting bacteria and treating acne.
Kiwi Seed Oil
Kiwi seed oil is extracted from the tiny seeds of the kiwi fruit. It is rich in fatty acids (particularly alpha linolenic acid (over 60%) and linolenic acid (15%)) and also packed with Vitamin C, Vitamin A, Potassium and Magnesium. This combination of nutrients produces a natural emollient that can soften the skin and improve elasticity.
Lavender Oil
Lavender oil comes from the flowers of the lavender plant, extracted through steam distillation. It is known for its pleasant scent and aromatherapy benefits including promoting relaxation and lowering anxiety. When used in skincare, it can also it can also calm skin problems such as bee stings, insect bites, minor burns, cuts, and eczema.
Lemongrass Oil
Lemongrass oil comes from the tropical lemongrass plant (Cymbopogon), which is dried and then distilled using steam. It is a used as a culinary herb in Asian cultures and a medicinal herb in India. For skincare, it adds antimicrobial and antibacterial properties. As such, it works well as an astringent, helping to clean skin and minimize pores.
Macadamia Oil
Macadamia oil is squeezed out of the meat of the macadamia nut. It is high in fatty acids, including Palmitoleic acid, Oleic acid and Linoleic acid. These fatty acids give it a chemical profile that is similar to human sebum (the natural oils our skin produces). Because of this, it is the perfect skincare additive to replenish the moisture of dry skin, with a hydrating and non-greasy feel.
Magnesium Sulfate (Epsom Salt)
Magnesium sulfate (better known as Epsom salt) is a chemical compound that consists of magnesium, sulfur and oxygen. Both magnesium and sulfate are easily absorbed into the skin, so soaking in Epsom salt can replenish the magnesium that your body has lost. The magnesium helps reduce inflammation and regulate enzymes, and the sulfate can help flush toxins and facilitate the absorption of nutrients.
Mango Butter
Mango butter is extracted from dried mangoes, creating an oil that is semi-solid at room temperatures but melts when it comes into contact with the skin. It is loaded with antioxidants, specifically Vitamins A, C and E, which can fight the impacts of free radicals that lead to aging skin. As such, mango butter is an excellent ingredient for natural anti-aging skincare products, with the power to reduce fine lines and wrinkles while soothing and moisturizing dry skin.
Meadowfoam Seed Oil
Meadowfoam seed oil is extracted from the seeds of the meadowfoam plant, native to California and Oregon. It contains over 98% long chain fatty acids, making it a powerful antioxidant that can help slow the aging process. It is also readily absorbed by the skin, so it can moisturize, protect, and help keep the right balance of oil and water.
Olive Squalane (Squalane)
Squalane is a natural moisturizer, found in highest quantities in the livers of sharks, but also obtained from olives. It can quickly penetrate the skin at a rate of 2mm per second, then bathes the skin in antioxidants that boost oxygenation and cell regeneration (thus reducing wrinkles and preventing the formation of age spots). Olive squalane also has antibacterial properties that can help skin conditions and sensitive skin.
Omega Fatty Acids
Omega fatty acids include omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids – good fats that are essential for many body functions including building healthy skin cells. They are responsible for the health of the cell membrane, which influences how well your cells hold water. By feeding the cell membrane fatty acids, your skin retains moisture, making it softer with fewer wrinkles. Omega fatty acids can also help diminish inflammation, as with skin conditions like acne and psoriasis.
Pepha-ctive is a compound derived from the marine algae Dunaliella Salina. The compound is a combination of unique amino acids and carbohydrates that can energize the skin and increase cell turnover (the skin’s cycle where old skin dies off and is replaced by new, healthier skin). As a result, Pepha-ctive can promote healthy, radiant and glowing skin.
Raspberry Seed Oil
Raspberry seed oil is extracted from the seeds of red raspberries. It is high in essential fatty acids, especially linoleic acid, alpha linoleic acid, and oleic acid. These powerful omega fatty acids have antioxidant properties, with the ability to find and quench free radicals that cause aging skin. Other benefits include reducing inflammation, absorbing damaging UV light, improving skin elasticity, smoothing fine lines and wrinkles, and moisturizing for soft supple skin.
Sea Kelp (Sea Kelp Extract/Tincture)
Gorgonians, or Sea Whips, are a marine invertebrate found in the Caribbean. They offer beneficial anti-inflammatory properties to skincare products through compounds called pseudopterosins. These compounds have been shown in clinical trials to suppress and prevent skin inflammation, and to be three times as potent as Bisabolol (an established anti-inflammatory agent). Sea Whip extract can reduce the effects of inflammation and soothe irritated skin.
Spirulina is a natural blue-green algae also known as cyanobacteria that is high in protein, nutrients and carotenoids that have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties – the main one being phycocyanin. Spirulina is used in skincare products because it can help slow down the effects of aging as well as detoxify and tone skin. Several clinical studies have shown phycocyanin to have therapeutic skin benefits.
Tetrahydrocurcuminoids are derived from curcuminoids, which are extracted from the root of the turmeric plant. They act as antioxidants that can protect against and prevent the formulation of free radicals that lead to aging skin. Tetrahydrocurcuminoids also have anti-inflammatory properties that can reduce the impacts of skin inflammation and protect the skin against ultraviolet radiation & other harsh environmental conditions.
Vegetable Glycerin
Vegetable Glycerin is a vegetable-based soap material consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. It is made from soybeans, coconut oil or palm oil. When used in cooking, vegetable glycerin keeps foods moist. When used in skincare products, it also improves moisture by hydrating the outer skin layer, improving protective barrier functions that hold moisture in, and leaving skin soft and smoother-looking.
Vitamin Antioxidant Complex
The Vitamin Antioxidant Complex is a special combination of vitamins and antioxidants used in Kaiderma’s facial skincare products. It includes Vitamins A, C, E, and a group of antioxidants that includes CoQ10, Alpha Lipoic Acid and others. These components work together to neutralize and quench free radicals through a series of reactions. By supporting, protecting, and re-activating each other, they can successfully fight aging skin.
Vitamin A
Vitamin A is an important vitamin for healthy skin and bones. It includes a group of organic compounds that are found in animal and plant matter. One active form of vitamin A is retinol, and numerous clinical studies have shown the anti-aging benefits of retinoids including wrinkle reduction, evening skin tone and smoothing skin roughness. Carotenoids (such as beta carotene) found in plant foods can also turn into a form of vitamin A with antioxidant properties that help fight aging skin. Vitamin A can also improve wound healing and help skin conditions like acne, eczema, and psoriasis.
Vitamin C
Vitamin C is found (in some quantity) in all fruits and vegetables. It is responsible for growth and repair of tissues, including being used to make an important protein used to make skin cells. It is an antioxidant that can block some of the damage and aging signs created by free radicals. This makes it a powerful anti-aging nutrient in skincare products which can help smooth & firm your skin as well as fade brown aging spots.
Vitamin E
Vitamin E is a fat soluble vitamin that is found in a variety of oils, nuts and vegetables. Like vitamins A and C, vitamin E is also an antioxidant that can fight the signs of aging by neutralizing free radicals in the skin. Because it is fat soluble, it is able to easily penetrate the skin’s natural lipids in order to protect the skin. Vitamin E also helps skin retain its natural moisture, improving hydration and making skin smooth.
Witch Hazel
Witch Hazel is a type of flowering plant, with three species native to North America, one in Japan, and one in China. The leaves, bark and twigs of witch hazel shrubs are used to make a range of medicines. In skincare, witch hazel is commonly used as a natural, gentle astringent that can remove excess oil from the skin, shrink pores, and therefore fight acne. Other skincare benefits of witch hazel including fading blemishes, and brightening around the eyes.